Responsive image

Guide for searching ADOPIA

General information

Chronology of names: Names range in date from those attested on the earliest Latin inscriptions found in Lusitania during the Republic to those attested up to the end of the 3rd century AD.

Origin of names: All personal names attested on coins and inscriptions (except those on ceramics and amphorae) found in Hispania are included, as well as those attesting individuals from Hispania documented in other parts of the Roman Empire. Each name is mapped according to its place of origin rather than its place of discovery.

Searching for names (Atlas)

In the section ATLAS [], FIVE types of search are possible:

  • Search for a name: all ancient personal names indexed, i.e., nomina, cognonima or single names or suprafamiliar organizations. You may search by the entire name or by just part of a name. [list]

  • Search for a modern placename: by site and modern municipality [list].

  • Search for an ancient ciuitas: by ancient toponyn [list].

  • Search by date: by date (e.g., 150) or by date-range (e.g., 51/100)

  • General search: This allows searches of the entire database, for instance, permitting other onomastic elements such as praenomina, Roman voting tribes etc. to be found.

Search results appear in a table with 6 columns and a map.

  • Name: the name appears in both masculine and feminine forms. Orthographic variants of the name are presented in the same entry. Each name is given in the Nominative, which sometimes requires the reconstruction of the Nominative form of the name in question when it is attested in another case: for example: ADIE(I)VS.

  • Function: of the name in the individual’s nomenclature: nomen and cognomen (abbreviated as Cog) for Roman citizens, single name (abbreviated as NU) for peregrini and slaves, suprafamiliar group (abbreviated as USFam). When it is impossible to tell for certain whether it is cognomen or single name, it is listed as Cog/NU. Supra-family organisations (USFam) have also been indicated.

  • Place: expressed by site, modern municipality (municipio) and modern province for placenames in Spain; by site, freguesia, concelho and distrito for placenames in Portugal. Spanish provinces and Portuguese districts are given in abbreviated from in brackets [list].

  • Ciuitas: Where known, the name of the Roman ciuitas in which the findspot was located is included. Material from the urban centre of each community is differentiated from that of its territory by the inclusion of (T) after the name of the community for attestations from the community’s territory.

  • Number of attestations: of each name in the specified modern location.

By clicking on the symbol (+), you can access a list of all known examples of each personal name from the particular location. The list is presented in 5 columns, as follows:

  • Personal denomination: of the individual where the particular name appears. In this column the name is linked to the relevant TRISMEGISTOS (TM) and/or EPIGRAPHIK-DATENBANK CLAUSS-SLABY (EDCS) file of the inscription concerned; from there, you can access all epigraphic databases in which the epigraphic text is included.

  • Function: of the name in the individual’s full nomenclature (v. supra).

  • Type document: an explanation of the type of inscription in which the name is attested:

    • funerary (sepulcral)

    • votive (votivo)

    • honorific (honorífico)

    • commemorative (including building inscriptions) (conmemorativo)

    • juridical (jurídico)

    • military diploma (diploma militaris)

    • uncertain (incierto)

  • Date: given in simplified, numerical form

  • Bibliographic reference: of the inscription in which the personal name appears; the first edition is usually given, where possible, followed in brackets by its reference in the standard epigraphic repertories (AE, HEp, etc.). Full details of the publication are revealed by hovering over the reference or by checking in the Bibliography (arranged alphabetically and accessible from the main page of the website:


On the map all locations where the personal name is attested are marked with a circle, with the size of the circle reflecting the number of attestations found at each location.

The COLOUR of each circle indicates the linguistic root and onomastic function of each name:

  • Latin names:       for nomina and       for cognomina and single names.

  • Indigenous names:       for nomina and       for cognomina and single names.

  • Greek names:       whatever their function.

  • Names of other linguistic origins:       whatever their function.

  • Names of uncertain origin:       whatever their function.

Clicking on the map on a particular location allows you to access a list of all personal names attested at this place, presented in 6 columns as on the first screen (v. supra).


In the section “Graphics” [] summary onomastic data for each ancient ciuitas (both for the urban centre and for its territory) and for each modern placename can be generated automatically.

Such summary data are presented in the form of three pie-charts:

  • one based on the linguistic origin of all names attested at the place (e.g., Latin, Greek, indigenous, other, unclear, etc.).

  • one based on the onomastic function of all names attested (nomen, cognomen, single name, cognomen/single name, suprafamilial group (USFam), unclear).

  • one based on a combination of linguistic origin and onomastic function (e.g., nomen / Latin, nomen / indigenous, cognomen / Greek, cognomen / indigenous, single name / Latin, single name / Greek, suprafamilial group (USFam) / indigenous, etc.).

In addition, the number of occurrences of each name is indicated in a BAR-GRAPH, with nomina separated from cognomina / single names.